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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. A series of talks were held by the UK and Spain between 1997 and 2002 on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since the referendum, tripartite talks on other issues have been held with Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar, and in September 2006 a three-way agreement was signed. Spain agreed to remove restrictions on air movements, to speed up customs procedures, to implement international telephone dialing, and to allow mobile roaming agreements. Britain agreed to pay increased pensions to Spaniards who had been employed in Gibraltar before the border closed. Spain will be allowed to open a cultural institute from which the Spanish flag will fly. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, but the UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.

Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates:
36 08 N, 5 21 W

Map references:

total: 6.5 sq km
country comparison to the world: 241
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Land boundaries:
total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km

12 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Current Weather
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources:

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant

Geography - note:
strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

28,877 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20.6% (male 3,055/female 2,884)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 9,656/female 9,468)
65 years and over: 13.2% (male 1,835/female 1,979) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 33.1 years
male: 32.2 years
female: 34.1 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.27% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173

Birth rate:
14.2 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147

Death rate:
8.17 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103

Net migration rate:
-3.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

urban population: 100% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.071 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.82 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 171
male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.53 years
country comparison to the world: 45
male: 75.69 years
female: 81.56 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.96 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups:
Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans

Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)

English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

definition: NA
total population: above 80%
male: NA
female: NA

Education expenditures:

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar

Dependency status:
overseas territory of the UK

Government type:

name: Gibraltar
geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain

5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007

Legal system:
the laws of the UK where applicable apply

18 years of age; universal; and British citizens who have been residents six months or more

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Vice Admiral Sir Adrian JOHNS (since 26 October 2009)
head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the speaker appointed by Parliament; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 October 2007 (next to be held not later than October 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 49.3%, GSLP 31.8%, Gibraltar Liberal Party 13.6%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 4, Gibraltar Liberal Party 3

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association

International organization participation:
Interpol (subbureau), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean

Economy - overview:
Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, the shipping sector, and tourism each contribute 25%-30% of GDP. Telecommunications accounts for another 10%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
$1.066 billion (2005 est.)
$769 million (2000 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
3.7% (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
7% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$38,400 (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$38,200 (2005 est.)
$27,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Labor force:
12,690 (including non-Gibraltar laborers) (2001)
country comparison to the world: 213

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: negligible
industry: 40%
services: 60% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
3% (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

revenues: $455.1 million
expenditures: $423.6 million (2005 est.)

Public debt:
15.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
15.7% of GDP (2005 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.6% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 92

Agriculture - products:

tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:
146 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182

Electricity - consumption:
146 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193

Oil - consumption:
21,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155

Oil - imports:
25,610 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174

$271 million (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Exports - commodities:
(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods

$2.967 billion (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Imports - commodities:
fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs

Debt - external:

Exchange rates:
Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar - 0.6494 (2009), 0.5302 (2008), 0.4993 (2007), 0.5418 (2006), 0.5493 (2005)
note: the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound

Telephones - main lines in use:
24,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 185

Telephones - mobile cellular:
18,400 (2004)
country comparison to the world: 208

Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange facilities
international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
1 (plus 3 repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
1,955 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 149

Internet users:
6,500 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 202

1 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 226

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2009)

total: 29 km
country comparison to the world: 217
paved: 29 km (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 240
country comparison to the world: 32
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 125, chemical tanker 51, container 43, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 10, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 225 (Belgium 2, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 3, Germany 129, Greece 6, Iceland 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 21, Norway 33, Sweden 13, UAE 3, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 7 (Liberia 5, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2008)

Ports and terminals:

Military branches:
Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2009)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,949 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,955
females age 16-49: 5,687 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 250
female: 233 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992

Disputes - international:
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy


Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010




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